Life relies on a number of protocols for obtaining COI
This stage involves breaking up tissues to make the
DNA accessible for amplification.
Different techniques are used depending on the quality
of the individual tissue sample.
Amplification (making copies) of the target DNA employs
a technique called the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
This is accomplished by placing the DNA extractions
in a specialized chemical environment and cycling them
through a specific temperature regime. A heat-activated
DNA polymerase replicates the target DNA sequence with
At this stage, the products must be checked for both
quantity and quality. Agarose gel electrophosesis is
used to visualize the amount and size of DNA fragments
present in the sample, and excess (non-target) DNA can
be removed through gel-purification. Clean DNA is then
prepared for sequencing by running a final PCR that
incorporates dye terminator nucleotides.